Saturday, July 13, 2013

Fashion Is a Career

Fashion is a very versatile field in terms of careers. Photography is an opening for the fashion sensitive journalists. In fashion photography all the inputs of style are given their simultaneous expression: the fabrics, the stylists, the designer, the model and the fashion photographer.
Much of our advertising is lifestyle advertising, which is not really fashion Photography. In India fashion photography is still at a nascent stage, though it is growing. At the moment it is generally confined to advertising of textiles because the big advertising is or the textile houses rather than the much smaller readymade garment sector. Added to this there is a small market restricted to a glamour market. Apart room the odd page in the weekend newspapers, there s little space available for a photo spread on fashion that would give the viewer an opportunity to understand the style of the fashion photographer. The concern yet is not so much to bring out the style of particular professional so as to make it distinctive ad recognizable in the eye of the Viewer.
Fashion photography is basically the advertising of clothes. Specialist In this field develop a style or feel) to their work which perhaps may be appropriate to the requirements of one section of the fashion industry. Often the photographer attempts to capture an atmosphere at the expense of detail in the clothes themselves. A garment often sell because they are associated with a certain age group or style, a fashion photographer attempts to reinforce this photography is probably the most competitive area of work today and is therefore not easy to break into,
It is a training of the eye, and no amount of technical training and information can make you see things, unless you have that inner ab1il1ity. Equipment, training is all secondary some of the masters worked with very Simple equipment, though of course technology helps. But the basic prerequisite is an intelligent, curious and perceptive mind.
Fashion Photography is a profession as well as an art form. You must have interest in visuals, attentive sensitiveness to color and shape and shadow, interest in light, in observing how colors look on certain days, for example on dull days, or gold sunsets.  For Fashion Photography, one must have a flair for fashion,' and an interest in style, in fact an involvement in the whole world of fashion. It has to be almost a passion. Lot of photography can be learnt from reading. Technical instruction, in the formal sense, is not necessary. Many techniques can be learned simply by assisting other photographers.
Bachelor’s courses in Art (5 years) offer specialized photography courses. 1he reader rnay refer to the chapter on art for information on Art Institutions. However, Photography as a .course IS offered by some institutions and universities. The course is of one year duration and Diploma is awarded.


Fashion modeling is considered glamorous, thrilling and lucrative. However, potential models should be aware that it is a tough, competitive, insecure and short lived career, before committing themselves to a full time career in modeling. The two main areas of modeling are fashion shows and fashion photography. There is overlap between these two areas and many models do both.
Fashion modeling focuses on clothing design and manufacture. The trend setting fashion houses produce collections 'of exclusively designed 'garments' or even accessories. In fashion shows the press, customers, buyers from the most exclusive shops etc. are welcomed. The trends in fashion business are set at such shows.
In live fashion shows fashion models display clothes and accessories to potential customers in a professionally choreographed setting and hence to the best effect. In fashion photographs they model to the requirements of the photographer. The two specialism demand quite different qualities, but there is much overlap and many models do both.
Live Modeling
Designers who build up prototype garments on the model are ramp modeled in fashion shows.
Displaying garments involves details such as how clothes hang the seams and the hems. Models walk with natural, flowing movements, bringing attention of the spectators and allowing close scrutiny. They also answer questions about the clothes. Models often work freelance.
Photographic Modeling
Photographic models work in the studio or on location. Some famous models obtain work with fashion and women's magazines. They also feature in the non-fashion sections such as furniture and carpets.
Models also work in advertising and for magazines for promoting fashion and other products. Models that have exceptionally attractive hair or eyes, may specialize in modeling particular products, such as shampoo or beauty products.
Photographic sessions are long, strenuous and demanding. Models pose for long periods and have to be cooperative and patient while the photographer adjusts the light, set etc. They have to follow instructive even for changing facial expressions, for looking relaxed, natural and lively.
Fashion models body should be well proportioned with good, attractive features, healthy complexion, even teeth and Lustrous hair. Those with an interesting appearance, rather than classical beauty, are often preferred.
Photographic models need to be highly photogenic.
Good health, a high standard of physical fitness, good physical coordination is essential. Models should have a pleasant, outgoing personality. They should be able to work in a group and have interest in drama and dance.
Models may have to spend long periods waiting. Hence they must be patient and interested even when tired or bored. Self-confidence is needed but models   able to accept criticism and rejection.
Modeling needs a professional approach.
Training facilities are limited in our country. However, fashion houses, some ad agencies, fashion show organizers do impart training to their models before they present a show.

Thursday, July 11, 2013

Career in Fashion Designing the Other Side of Designing

Fashion is a term commonly used in relation to clothes, dresses, garments, textiles, etc. There may be styles in a large number of other things, e.g., furniture, automobiles, etc. In this Chapter I have dealt with fashion as related to garments and accessories.
In the last fifteen years fashion designing has gained spectacular prominence. There is increase in quality textiles materials for the fashion designers to work with. This trend of fashion consciousness is bound to grow and stay. 
Fashion is identified today with status, acceptance and it almost implies social involvement. India enjoys a prominent place in the international market with its rich silks, traditional handloom fabrics, rustic textures and vibrant dyes. The creation of a world market for Indian garments is largely the contribution of Indian fashion designers. The trends of growth are set for fashion entrepreneurs.
There are three main areas of fashion design and manufacture. These are designing for mass production (wholesale), fashion trends and large scale manufacture of designer ware. By far the largest area is wholesale manufacture, where firms mass-produce garments following fashion trends set in by fashion forecasters. High fashion designs when simplified and adapted for the common public are suitable for production in large numbers at low cost. Fashion trend setters are celebrated firms and fashion houses which produce exclusively designed garments collections. Fashion shows of collections are held for marketing these designs. Designers, in the wholesale manufacturing sector, generally specialize in producing certain types of clothes in a wide range of styles and fabrics, e.g., jeans, jackets, children wear, men's wear, etc. Some designers specialize in leisurewear, women's wear; accessories, shoes, knitwear, sportswear. Some others specialize in designing of costumes for stage artists, TV or film. This work can involve historical research as well as design.
Stages in the Designing of a Garment
Research - Creation is of a design involves identifying what customers need and which designs will sell. Even in the special designers section, designers producing expensive original work keep in mind factors such as social customs, international fashion trends and fabrics available. In the wholesale sector, manufacturing designers select and modify designs which are going to sell. They get 'ideas, by reviewing periodicals and attending fashion shows, etc. They also take into account competitors' products and sales information. Trends are anticipated as designs are produced a year in advance of garments reaching the market. New designs are required for two or more seasons each year.
Designs - Designers use their creativity to produce ideas to suit the market's needs. Sketches are used to outline basic ideas when fabrics are selected. The appearance, quality and texture of fabrics are taken into account. During manufacturing, the designer liaises with production staff and the buyer to ensure that mass production is feasible and cost effective.
Patterns - Designers make formal drawings indicating the position of seams, folds, darts, etc., but in many cases patterns are translated from the rough sketches by draftsmen.
Samples - Designers garments are made up for the show or private clients. In wholesale manufacture, samples are made up before mass production begins and the designer makes any necessary adjustments. Changes may be required to suit production/budgetary requirements.
Presentation - Designers are required to present their design work to clients. Effective presentation is essential for designers. They do so through fashion shows, selling to individuals or retail buyers. Designers market their work and give advice to clients about adaptations- types of fabric which can be used, different dimensions, production problems etc. This is a major aspect of the work for many designers.
Fashion designers should be artistic and creative. They should be able to express their ideas in sketches. They may not be brilliant artists but must be able to combine colors, shades and tones. Designers have a flair for creating with fabric and know how to use textiles effectively. Designers need visual imaginary and the ability to think in three-dimensions to translate into garments what they visualize. They must be fashion conscious and must be aware of market's requirements. An understanding of the market and customer lifestyle is required, so that designs are suitable for people they are made for. Designers must be good communicators. The work involved with selling, and persuading and influencing are required.
Self-employed/freelance designers need business acumen. Top designers must be highly original and inventive. Sketching is not possible at shows, therefore designers must be observant and must have a good memory.

Design Department
Manufacturing units work on a large scale. They employ designers, cutting assistants, sketching assistants, junior designers. Cutting assistants have to cut samples as per specifications of the designer. This is followed by draping and garment construction. Sketching assistants make the technical sketches of the garments which are passed on to cutting assistants. From the making of specification drawings which decide how a garment has to be fabricated to the selection of fabrics is often the duty of the sketching assistant.
Junior designers generally do the first pattern cutting. They assemble the first samples with fabrics they have selected from the market.
Marketing and merchandising
Fashion trends are constantly changing the people in merchandising and marketing have a good knowledge of fashion trends, of sales data and the organizations marketing objectives. Based on this information the marketing department plans the company's overall direction. It determines the price product requirement, and hence they often work with the styling department when a new product in conceived.
Manufacturing Department
The production manager is at the head of the manufacturing unit. He is responsible for scheduling work goals, training of workers, managing all activities in order to maintain quality in production. The production manager oversees the work of pattern cutting from pattern grading, spreading and marketing to cutting, assembling and finishing. With the production manager are production assistants who supervise the work at each stage.
The production pattern maker makes the first 'master pattern' of the garment on tough paper. This master pattern is made in close coordination with the fashion designing department. The master pattern is made into a number of sizes. Each piece of the garment is represented by a piece of the' pattern. The fabric is spread out and patterns are cut. The pieces are assembled for the machine operator and finally finished by handwork.
This is the process where a number of people are employed in large manufacturing industries while in smaller units the same persons may be, doing a number of tasks.
Fashion coordinators coordinate with the buyer and the production manager. The fashion coordinator makes sure production schedules are kept, meets buyers goes through specifications for fabrics, colors, designs and keeps an eye on the quality.
When buyers give their own designs, the coordinator helps decide the fabric colors and accessories that should be used to suit the designs. They explain the design to the production pattern makers and ample pieces made. The sample is draped on a dummy to see if some changes in details or style are required. Once the sample is finalized, its pieces are measured precisely. It is the coordinator who suggests how the cloth should be cut so as to minimize wastage. The garment is then and finally presented or sale.
Fashion designing courses are generally offered to students after +2. The course imparts training in all the aspects-of garment manufacture. However, the quality of training varies from institute to institute. There are very prestigious and competitive courses in fashion technology offered by National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi which has gained tremendous applause for training perhaps some very prominent fashion designers. Sophia Polytechnic in Bombay too is a well known training school. Fashion designers, however, are being trained by some newer institutes also. In the courses section the reader will mind a complete description of the courses at NIFT- New Delhi, Sophia - Bombay and the addresses of some polytechnics in Delhi. Students in other parts of the country are advised to visit local polytechnics and vocational training institutes for courses in fashion design.
Accessory Design This three year diploma program introduces students to basic design concepts, visualization techniques, manipulation of materials and techniques of interpretation, leading to the creation of costume jewelry and accessories in various materials and traditional Indian craft styles. Students are taught portfolio and presentation techniques, given marketing inputs and trained in design management.
This program offers careers as Design Coordinators, Managers and prepares them for entry into the emerging market of accessory export from India.
Fashion Design
The curriculum for this three years diploma program covers the development of the garment from source of inspiration to the finished product. Technical aspects like fashion art, pattern making, garment construction, grading and draping are taught and practiced. Subjects like History of Costumes and Textiles, Apparel Fabric Studies, Textile Science round off the education program.
Students are taught presentation techniques, organization of shows and preparation of Art portfolio to link aspects of creative marketing in the curriculum. Individual creativity is articulated into design collections and projects.
This program offers students the opportunity to take up positions as Fashion Coordinators, Stylists, pattern makers and Designers.
Apparel Marketing and Merchandising
This course is a specialized two year post graduate diploma program which covers practical aspects of the fashion industry, with a focus on marketing & merchandising. Students undergo rigorous training in buying, merchandising, retail operations, fashion coordination, advertising, forecasting, international marketing, trade documentation and project formulation.
They are exposed to creative merchandising/marketing following domestic and international marketing practices, forecasting & other factors. Training is also imparted in computer applications in business and the students are also given production oriented inputs to develop competitive professionals.
This program prepares students for careers in middle management level in functional areas of international marketing, retail & inventory management. The course is supported all through the program by industry projects and presentations.
Garment Manufacturing Technology
This two year postgraduate level diploma program covers aspects of optimal resource utilization and timely delivery of quality merchandise to customers. The syllabus is practical, based on classroom and laboratory simulation of current factory and business trends. It includes subjects such as business administration, industry and engineering concepts and techniques of production   patternmaking, strategic planning and an in-depth knowledge of seams, stitches and machine types. Time and motion studies are applied to critical activities like spreading, marking and cutting, ensuring high standards of quality control and garment specification.
This program prepares students for careers in middle management levels in garment manufacturing firms. The graduates are employed as Production Managers. While trained in assembly-line simulations, they are also capable of handling job-work with tailor based units. Graduates with engineering background are more suited for this course.
Leather Garment Design and Technology
The course has inputs on Production System and Garment engineering skills, leather garments manufacturing processes, design forecast and awareness and skills, patternmaking techniques and concepts, garment specifications and international size charts, selection of trimmings etc.
This is a modular program, which allows the students to specialize either as Designers/Stylists or Managers in a Leather company. It is a two year professional program at the Post
Graduate level. The program offers graduates career as Production
Managers with a firm grasp of the principles of design and pattern making/cutting or Designers/Stylists with a thorough knowledge of pattern making and cutting on production methods.
Knitwear Design and Technology
This two year diploma program provides students with the opportunity to study and practice the inter-related aspects of Knitwear and Knitted product design, along with the required aspects of technology. The course aims to prepare students who understand the important combination of creativity with a sound knowledge of materials and processes.
Technical aspects like fashion art, pattern making, garment construction and grading are included. The training will develop skills in the student to produce a range of knitted products which demonstrate research, analysis, costing, technology application and design to a professional standard. Industry internship will provide students with awareness and experience of the related aspects of the business and industry.
The program will enable students to enter the knitted products industry as fully functioning designers who are business/technology aware.
Textile Design and Development
The Textile Design and Development has inputs which has both design and technology. The course is designed to explain the concepts of textile design from the stage of the original fiber till the final product.
The course is a two year master’s course after graduation and includes inputs of textile, sketching, printing, weaving and computer application to cover woven, print and embroidery designs. In the final year, the students will be mostly doing practical design projects with clients.

The program offers the opportunities to graduates to take up careers as Textile Design Technologists, in Print Houses, handloom industry,  Mills Sector and the Garment Export Houses.

The World of Designing With Computers

Careers in Computers and Information Technology
Careers in Designing

It is true that the profession of designers has come a long way in the last decade. It has received public recognition firstly as a part of our economic and cultural life and secondly as business, or design industry. However, one can still perceive formidable challenges for those trying to pursue a career in design. The contribution of 'industrial' designers is not as widely known as it should be. The reasons for this are that most people are familiar with engineers and architects as people carrying out more challenging design based activities. Industrial design, however, refers to an activity that has to do with products and objects that are used to fulfill practical functions. It is impossible to dissociate the term design from the term manufacture.
In design it is the application of creative and artistic skills to a practical end. Designers work within technical, manufacturing or budgetary limits but ensure that, the design serves the purpose it is intended for. Designers work to a brief, but they are creative people who must be left to develop their own genius. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Design is divided up into a number of separate areas: Graphic design and Textile design are two dimensional while three-dimensional design includes industrial design, product design, fashion and jewelry design, interior and furniture design, exhibition and theatre design, etc.
Graphic design originated as design for the printing industry - books, posters, magazines, but has expanded into other areas and it now includes photography, film and video, and all kinds of visual communications.
Textile design relates in particular to manufacturing industries.
While artists and designers skills are alike, artists work shows self-expression while designers work is aimed on problem solving and practical tasks. Designs of products, environments and systems aim at the customers ' needs in terms of comfort, aesthetics, efficiency, safety, reliability, economy, etc. Designers often have to put restraints on their creativity as they work towards deadlines. Professional designers need to be creative but the amount of creative or original work they can be involved in varies. It is essential that designers have technical knowledge appropriate to their discipline, and commercial awareness of markets.
Areas designers work in
Design finds application in a number of different fields. Industrial designers develop and design products like cars, home appliances, computers, medical, Office or recreational equipment, children's toys, etc. Designers combine their artistic talent with research they do on product use, marketing, production methods, and materials to create the most functional and appealing design and to make the product competitive in the market.
Graphic designers work in visual communication design. They work through print, drawings, pattern, photography or a combination of these. Graphic designers work for ad agencies, in printing and publishing, commercial packaging, design research, TV and film companies etc. Fashion designers design apparel and accessories. Fashion designers may be self-employed and design for individual clients. They make fashion trends by establishing the line, colors, and kinds of materials that will be worn each season. Others cater to high fashion department stores. They design original garments as well as follow the established fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, adapting men's, women’s, and children’s fashions for the mass market. Textile designers design fabrics for garments, upholstery, rugs and other products, using their knowledge of textile materials and fashion trends. Other designers may be working as even exhibition designers, craft designers, etc.
Interior designers plan space and furnish the interiors of private homes, public hotels and theatres.
They develop designs; prepare working drawings and specifications for interior construction, furnishings, lighting and finishes according to the clients' needs and tastes. Interior designers plan spaces that meet accessibility standards for the disabled and elderly also.
Set designers design movie, television and theatre sets. They study scripts, discuss with directors and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.
Industrial and visual communication designers must be creative and artistic with a good imagination.
They should be able to think in a clear; logical manner, analyze problems and come up with original solutions. They need visual imagination and should think in three-dimensions. They should be able to express their ideas through drawings. They should have numerical ability to enable them to calculate dimensions, etc. They must be capable of intricate and detailed. work for drawing and constructing models good color sense, appreciation of aesthetics and sensitivity to ergonomics (the study of the relationship between people and their environment).
Designers should be amiable, good at communication and should be able to get on well with colleagues.
Skills in persuading are necessary to present ideas and arguments to other members of the design team.
This category of design encompasses a wide range of materials and industries. It is concerned with products, objects, things. In 3-D design there is craft or studio based design, and there is industrial design.
Industrial Design
Product design/ceramic design/furniture design - In manufacturing industry, traditionally, the engineer who designed the working parts of a machine also designed its exterior and, without any art-based training, did so more or less according to the shape and size of the product's parts and the demands of the manufacturing process.
Rapid growth in consumer spending and growing competition for sales led manufacturers to see the possibility of designing products which not only look good and can be sold on appearance, but can also be more efficient and convenient to use.
Increasingly now, designers are working with design engineers to produce designs for goods, keeping in mind the appearance of items, convenience, safety, efficiency and ease of maintenance. New development in design have also been possible because of technological developments and new materials, e.g., metals, plastics, rubbers, etc, are more flexible for the designer's needs.
Craft design - Designers have technical knowledge of relevant handicraft or manufacturing processes, for example firing, decorating, carving, inlaying, molding, engraving and glazing. They work for designing of ceramics (ornaments, tiles, etc), jewelry, silverware, metalwork and pottery, glass (glassware and stained/architectural glass) and furniture. Design is usually for mass-manufacture, or possibly for production through traditional methods by designer crafts persons.
Designers may work with potters and jewelers to create products that have a wider appeal and a more competitive pricing. Some work for the film and advertising industry, making anything that is required for the purpose of creating a special effect. In addition to being visually creative craft designers are their own technologist, production manager, marketing expert and salesman, book-keeper and buyer.
Visual Design
Graphic design/animation design- Graphic design is really the design of communication and has developed considerably from the days when it was known as commercial art. Graphic designers work with print, pictures and patterns on flat surfaces. They 'layout' words and pictures on pages for books and magazines, in advertisements, posters, sales brochures, product packaging, TV program title sequences, and the sides of mobile vans.
The aim of graphic design is to effectively communicate information through visual means. It is a broad heading covering a number of different disciplines.
Typography is an essential element of all fields of graphic design. Specialized areas are lettering and calligraphy. Most illustrators concentrate on specialist subjects, e.g., fashion, nature or cartoon. Many designers specialize in particular skills or in types of media; for example, magazines or TV technical illustration work for scientific, medical or engineering subjects, for reproduction in manuals and text books demand precision. Animation is based entirely on drawings which, when photographed, produced a three-dimensional impression.
Basic knowledge of printing and image-producing techniques is essential. Designers must know how to use space, color, lines and shapes. The work is as much technical as creative. Designers have to understand the technicalities of printing processes, photography, color reproduction, type with all its varied fonts, sizes and weights.
More and more of the everyday work of the graphic designer is done on computer system.
Industrial Design/Visual Design/Graphic Design
The activities involved in three-dimensional designing begin with design research. Designers work on briefs from the marketing department who research what the customers want and which designs will sell. The designer may work on modifying existing products or parts of products, rather than creating wholly new ones.
The designing process implies the application of creative talents to produce rough sketches to outline ideas, keeping the design within available production capabilities. The designers then selects the shapes, colors and materials for products keeping in mind the functional aspect which must suit the lifestyles of customers and ensure product efficiency.
Designers use technical knowledge and liaise extensively with other experts to ensure feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Designs may have to be modified and adapted a number of times before they are acceptable. Technical constraints may often compromise the original concept for a product. Once designs in the form of rough sketches have been approved by management, detailed working drawings are prepared. Computer aided design (CAD) systems may be used. Accurate models of products are also made for testing. In addition to supplying production staff with working drawings showing exact dimensions etc, the designer may have to provide written instructions. The designer should be available to solve problems relating to adoption ensuring that the end product; as far as possible, conforms to the initial brief and agreed requirements.
A large number of designers working in industry and commerce are working in graphics/visual communications. Many of them specialize in one particular field such as advertising, publicity, and packaging. The main areas of employment are as follows:
Advertising - Graphic designers may specialize in poster work, preparing lay-outs, TV advertising, shop display, etc. Normally graphic designers work in teams of two in ad agencies. The team has an art director and a copy writer. Their skill is in originating ideas which promote products in imaginative and existing ways.
Publishing and printing - They are mainly doing typo-graphic work, illustrations, technical illustrations and photographic work for books, book jackets, greeting cards, magazines and journals. Commercial firms and industries need graphic designers for advertising, packaging designs, etc.
TV film and video companies - Graphic designers design opening titles and credits. 'They may illustrate in animation or for educational program. This field of work is being increased by the spread of more and more sophisticated computer animation systems. The principles of animation are the same, but new technology allows a designer to put together sequences of movement much more rapidly.
Publicity materials- Another and less well-known side of the advertising industry concerns designing of brochures which describe products to potential customers or a whole variety of give-away material; carrying the company name, logo and slogan.
Illustration - Illustration is a specialized area of graphic design that concerns the drawing and painting of images that will appear alongside text in a book, poster or magazine. An illustrator gets briefed by the editor on the kind of style required and the subject matter.
Photography - Photography will be dealt with later in this section but it is as well to realize that photography is just as much a part of graphic design as illustration. It is simply another way of producing pictures, and freelance photographers, who want to work in publishing or advertising, build their career in exactly the same way as illustrators.
Basic Training Program
The foundation year (1st year) involves an introduction to the basic skills and conceptual abilities necessary for a designer. Inputs during this year include freehand drawing, geometry (plane and 3D), model making, and introduction to materials, color, graphic composition and design process. Taking off from a theoretical base, the emphasis is on learning through actual practice, experience and exploration of media and phenomena. At the end of the first year, students are given their streams for specialization based on their preference and aptitude, and their performance during the foundation year.
• Product design - The product design program aims to produce professionals who can handle design and development of products of both industrial and small scale sectors (e.g., consumer goods, automobile, packaging, etc.). Students are exposed to real and simulated work conditions in the form of projects in which they demonstrate their learning, application of theory and their creativity and innovation. Theory courses include technical drawing and illustration, engineering materials and processes, technical sciences, ergonomics, photography, computers and model making, along with assignments in form, space and aesthetics. The major projects include simple product design in plastics, control-display interface design, techno-aesthetic detailing, lighting, packaging, electro mechanically complex product and systems design.
Furniture design - This discipline involves the design of furniture for different domestic or commercial applications and can be extended to the design of system furniture and storage devices, structures and exhibitions. Some of the theoretical courses in furniture design are shared with product design. Some specialized inputs include furniture technology, wood and metal joinery and prototype making. The major projects include simple furniture design (wire products), outdoor furniture, and craft design, folding furniture and system design.
Textile design - Textile design involves the design of printed and woven surfaces for applications like, garments and apparels, furnishings and interiors. Students are introduced to various techniques of surface design and decorations, fabric structure and construction and are also given practical experience in weaving, printing and dyeing methods in both craft and industrial sectors.
Visual communication - This programmer aims to turn out professionals who can communicate through a variety of media in different sectors that might need their services (like social developmental communication, advertising, film making, corporate presentations, print/publishing, etc.)
Some of the important courses in visual communication are elements of composition, layout and typography, letter design, color, photography, illustration, DTP, printing technology, packaging, symbol design, exhibitions and elements of video, animation and audio visuals. After the third year, students of communication design take up major projects in areas like graphic design, video programming, animation and exhibitions for specializations.
Textiles and yarns are of many kinds and are used for making garments, furnishings, 'carpets, towels, lace, net, embroidery, etc. Fabrics may be woven, knitted or printed. Designers specialize in designing fabric for men's suit, ladies' dress or furnishing fabrics. Textile designing is a very technical subject today as a combination of methods is used. The Indian textile designer today has become prominent in the world market as he has skillfully blended the traditional textures and dyes the modern market needs.
Creative ability and good technical knowledge is essential. The textile designer must have knowledge of yarn making, weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing processes, including the knowledge of different types of looms, knitting machines, printing processes including block, stencil, roller and silk-screens.
Textile designing involves design research. This involves an understanding of what the customer requires and which designs are likely to sell. Fashion and design trends are important and so are popular colors, yarns etc. Trends in the trade have to be forecasted since a product may take a year sometime to reach the market. Having studied current trends of fashion, designers apply their creativity to produce designs to suit the market. Rough sketches are used to outline basic ideas.
The designer takes into consideration the use of the fabric, its durability, weight, texture, etc. Sketches are transferred to detailed technical specifications, to be put on machines, looms or printing tables. The specific construction of designs is presented on graph paper or through CAD (computer aided design) systems.
Technical translations are used to produce samples of cloth. The designer works in liaison with technicians and technologists, making necessary adjustments to the designs. The design manager and sales and marketing staff select samples from the range for the market.
It is vitally important for textile designers to keep a breast with the market through trade fairs and visiting clients. Effective presentation, of their work determines the overall success of the design or the designer. Designers may be involved in adaptations and modifications relating to the color, price, after designs are sold.
Designers are creative people and very talented. They have a flair for the work they do. They have a good eye for color and ability to work with details. Innovativeness is essential. Designers should be fashion conscious and able to anticipate customers' requirements. Technical knowledge is a prerequisite. Designers need the ability to communicate effectively and should be able to persuade and influence people. Since the work is as much concerned with selling as with creativity.
Textile designers have scope for employment with' textile manufacturing industries. They also work with cottage industries, small scale industries and as entrepreneurs, with a growing market for exports of textiles, textile designers find employment with export houses as well as large scale industries catering to the national and international markets. Many textile designers work as free lancers offering their designs to various industries.
Advertising involves the process wherein a message is designed so as to promote a product, a thought, an idea or even a service. The concept of advertising has assumed a dynamic form with the use of the various mediums of communication. From the newspapers, magazines, posters, neon and fluorescent signboards, billboards to the commercials on TV advertising has come a long way. The work is formidable as it spearheads process intended to attract, modify, change and influence public opinion. From the local business to the multinational firm all need to advertise. While politicians, social organizations, government special groups need to advertise their motto, national airlines, automobile manufacturers, food and consumer goods manufacturers have to reach the consumer. Styles for advertising vary. Specialist products and services are often advertised through trade magazines and exhibitions. Lately mail-shots, handbill circulation, special offers have become every popular. There are still other ways of advertising. There are window displays, display on telephone directories, transit signs on buses, rickshaws, lamp posters, banners, etc.
Advertising, as an effective medium, uses a variety of techniques to create effective advertisements. A basic appeal is at the heart of advertising. Slogans and product characters are created to catch the attention of the viewers. Most winning advertisements would encompass factual information with emotional appeal. The advertising industry has three rnajor sectors. The business or organizations who wish to advertise the media who provide the medium for advertising and the ad-agency which creates the ad to suit the needs of the firm.
The description of the process which an ad goes through in its creation and the people who make this possible has been described in the next section.
The link, between the client who wishes to advertise and the media where the ad appears, is the ad agency where the ad is created. Various skills are required in the preparation of an ad-from identifying the purpose of the ad and the clients need, the identification of media, the creative inputs, to the verbal catch phrases all needs skill and expertise. Hence the people in an ad agency are specialists. They are the Account executive and the Account planner in the client servicing departments, the media executives and planners who buy space in the media and the creative executives or the copywriters and visual producers who create the ads.
Accounts Executives
In advertising 'the account' is the client. The business of each client with the agency is referred to as an account. An ad agency handles assignments of a number of clients. A client's business is assigned to a team of people from the ad agency with the Account Executive at the head of the team. An Account Executive may be handling the business of a number of non-competing clients at the same time. The Account Executive supervises his team of people drawn from all departments while planning, scheduling and executing the assignment.
Before a campaign is launched research on the client’s business methods, the product to be advertised is made. With this background information there is a meeting of the creative media and marketing divisions along with members of the client's team. The objective of this meeting is to define the use of the product, and the target users as well as other competing brands. After all the information is assimilated the agency team prepares a draft brief with recommendations. These are presented to the client by the Account Executive. The brief and budget are discussed and after finalization the work begins. The Account Executive motivates guides and coordinates the activities so that deadlines are met and the client’s expectations become a reality.
He spends a lot of time keeping the client updated on the progress. The Agency's Director too has to be kept informed. This is done directly in smaller firms but in larger firms there may be an Account Planner or Director.
Account Planner/Director
The Account Planner is the main planning executive who works in partnership with the client on long term account planning. He knows what is happening in the market place, the attitude of the consumer towards the client's as well as the competitor's brands.
 Media Executives
The main task of the media executive is to place the advertisements where they will be seen by the right target audience keeping the budget in mind. Hence this job requires planning, research and buying space in the press or time for commercial radio and television. In large agencies this task may be allocated to ~ two or three different specialists. There may be media planners and media buyers. In small agencies the task may be handled by the same person.
Media planner has access to up-to-date information about each advertising medium. This includes the readership and circulation figures for newspapers and magazines, viewing figures for different times of the day, listening audience figures for commercial radio stations, etc. They are also aware of the various locations for hoardings and bill boards.
Working on the brief from the media executive and using some or all the above media sources, the planner creates a detailed media plan, showing which media are to be used, when, and the costs involved in each for each medium to maximum appeal for the target group. It is through the selection of the right media that a good media department can save large advertisers money as well as give credibility.
Media buyers buy advertising time./space-for the agency's client. They work closely with the media planner if the two functions are often carried out separately.
Television and newspaper advertising are expensive. The media buyer's expertise is in negotiating the best possible deal for the client. The commercial breaks with the most viewers are the most expensive and so also the newspapers and magazines with the highest circulation figures. There is severe competition for the most popular slots. Hence besides a lot of negotiating, the job entails detailed record keeping of transactions and calculations to ensure that a campaign stays within the stipulated budget.
Creative Copywriter and Art Director
Copywriting and visual art work go hand in hand and this is the work which goes on in the agency's creative department. The real ad is created here by the creative team. Briefs from the
Account Executive outlining the target group for the advertisement and information about the product, followed by discussions with the account planner, along with research material, and perhaps a meeting with the client put the creative department to work.
Copywriting involves providing words which are read or heard in advertisements. This may include slogans or jingles or detailed text for catalogues, brochures, leaflets and journals. Copy writing also takes the form of scripts for television and film commercial advertisement.
The essential skill of the Copywriter lies in interpreting and understanding the mind and needs of the target audience and the characteristics of the product. They must identify what it is that would make people want or need the product being promoted. The Art Director and the Copywriter together then work on an idea that should catch the attention of the public and put the selling point of the product across. Many ads are discarded, reincarnated and created. The final product is a team effort of the copywriter and art director with each having suggested alterations to the other.
The more successful creations are then shown to the creative director who in turn may suggest further modifications. Final drawings are then produced and shown to the client. Once-the client accepts the concept the layout is modified and the details filled in. The design and copy is sent to the production team for typesetting, photographs and drawings for printed advertisements or filming for television commercials.
Ad Agencies may have their production team which includes Photographers, Printers, Typesetters, Television Producers, etc. But since the work is very diverse most ad agencies coordinate with freelancers or established production units for the task to be completed.
Ad Agencies are based within office settings. Accounts Executives, Account Planners, Media Executives, Art Directors and Copywriters spend most-of their working time in agency offices. Account Executives have to travel extensively, visiting clients and suppliers. While staff, travel occasional to attend meetings with clients, or visit locations during film production. Ad Agencies are very busy places and often work is on till late hours.
People in the accounts or client servicing, i.e., the Account Executive, Director and Planner need to be adept at negotiating. The ability to communicate easily is vital. They face the challenge of competing in the market with other agencies; hence need to have drive determination and tremendous physical and mental stamina. Sensitivity to consumer behavior, trends and human nature are important for success in advertising. They should be able to assimilate the client’s requirements and in a lucid style prepare briefs for other departments. The ability to get along with others and get the work executed by all departments is specially required.
Media Executives, Planners and Buyers must enjoy working with others in an integrated team. They should be able to interpret and absorb a great deal of information.
Media buyers spend most of their time negotiating over the telephone to buy space or time. Attention to detail is needed and they should be able to keep a careful record of all transactions. Numerical ability is needed for keeping to the budget allocated.
The creative people need a good visual ability, language/artistic skill. Copywriters require literary ability but an interest in commercial success which comes from understanding what motivates the target audience is important;
Writers must be able to work, to a strict brief, within restricted space and in limited time. Advertising must follow legal requirements and rules hence considerable creative self-discipline is needed. A feeling for words, economy of style and imagination are needed.
The Copywriter works with the art director, and the creative director. The work can be very frustrating particularly when an idea is rejected by the art director or amendments made by the creative director and the client. This can often restrict the imaginative capacity of the copywriter. The openness to stand criticism is absolutely essential.
The client servicing is generally handled by post graduates in Business Management. The job needs business skills; hence graduates from any stream with some training in business administration are generally preferred. An advertising qualification too is useful. The creative people, particularly the visualizes, i.e., the Art Director and his team are selected from Art Schools or Design Institutes.
Bachelor of Applied Art course teaches the prospective creative artist the use of mediums like photography, graphics, and visual communication. Courses in Mass communication are also useful. Media Planners and Buyers have to be acquainted with the various mediums, price, etc. Courses in management, advertising, marketing, public relations are useful for this department.

The production people come from Art Schools and film and TV Training Institutions. The field of advertising is open to students who have passed from Art Schools, Management Schools, Design Schools, and graduates from reputed institutes with a rich co curricular record and those from advertising courses or mass communication courses. Here you will find courses in Advertising. Readers can refer to the relevant courses in the areas mentioned in other relevant chapters of this book.

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Careers in Computers and Information Technology

Careers in Computers and Information Technology
The IT scenario offers kinds of careers - in the Hardware sector and in Software. All Jobs related to the production, design and maintenance the machinery comprise the Hardware sector. Software is utility program installed in the hardware in order to make it operational for the end user.
The Profession: Hardware sector offers jobs like Service Engineers: They are employed by the computer manufacturers and vendors for purposes of servicing the maintenance. Problems related to the hardware or in the alignment of hardware re and software are rectified by them.
Design Engineers: are employed in the production sector. Their work involves the actual engineering of new and improved versions of hardware.
Computer Scientist/Technologist: Works in the R D team of the manufacturing unit. He is involved in design modifications in suit the needs of the industry.
Software: The software Sector is a highly competitive field and the prospects are excellent. In the hierarchy of
Programmers: They create & test the efficacy of software programmer and help the end user in the installation and use of it.
Applications Programmer: Writes user friendly programs to the specifications of the systems analyst. He works in software houses or consultancy firms and directly interacts with the client at the installation phase of the programs.
The Systems Programmer: Work is more academic. He creates systems software which is the base on which the applications programs run. He works in ware houses and at R & D institutes. Analyst Programmer handles the entire process of implementation of medium sized computerization projects. He analyses the requirements, writes the program, and run the tests software. He works in user organizations with large computer networks
Systems Analyst: Has to interface between the client and the programmer. He evolves the overall plan and procedure of software development. He researches the end users mode of operations at the office and analyses the mea ns of computerizing it using available technology. He should be well versed in system analyses and design for it is he who gives the blueprint on which the programmer works. He should also be a communications expert as he has to feel the pulse of the end user and provide accordingly. He works with software houses and consultancy
Software Engineers: Are another specialized breed of computer software developers who are also adept in the technical side. He is usually employed by the R & D institutes and his work covers the design development and maintenance of higher end software.
Other jobs available in the computer sector are marketing of hardware and software. A working knowledge of both would be useful.
End user Jobs: To this category belong the computer operators, data entry staff and any professional who uses the computer to perform his duties.
Training: The growth of the IT industry has resulted in a mushrooming of 1T training institutes. These institutes provide jobs for those who aspire to be trainers.

Career growth
Computers are a field which offers possibilities for career growth in all the jobs it offers. Growth is linked to experience and expertise..

Mid life entries
Computer software training is open to people of all ages. They must, however, have the basic aptitude and interest.
Web Careers
Today internet has become a one-stop Shop for any information on anything anywhere in the world. The collection and transmission of data are done at the Click of a key. Voicemail makes transmission of voice data possible while video conferencing allows face to face conversation between people located across the globe.
The web offers infinite opportunities for the internet savvy professional. On the technical side, the web professional has to ensure the smooth, uninterrupted functioning of web sites while, on the creative side, the webmaster designs, activates and maintains these sites. The webmaster should have artistic sensitivity as well as marketing skills, for he is basically an advertising professional. Most computer institutes offer basic and advanced courses in web designing. The basic qualifications for entry in this field are graduation with knowledge of computer operating systems programming languages, graphic, and internet tools. Artistic skills and an eye for color and shape can be an added advantage.
Courses in Computers are of four types
1. University courses
2. Those offered by IT conglomerates like Microsoft, Sun and Oracle.
3. Department of Electronics Accredited Computer Courses
4. Courses offered by large and small training institutes
Department of Electronics Accreditation of Computer Courses (DOEACC)
Introduced in 1991 by Department of Electronics (DOE), these courses offer a certain quality and standard in computer education. There are four levels of courses under this scheme.
'0' Level/ foundational Level affirms the individuals competence as programmer assistant. Students who have completed +2 and the 'O' Level course from authorized institutes can appear for this exam.
‘A’ Level/Advanced Diploma Level: The candidate who qualifies ‘A’ level is equipped for a programmer’s job. Duration of course is one years. Eligibility for ‘A’ Level Exam: Graduate 'O' level accredited 'A' level course.
'B' Level/Graduate Level: Those who qualify this exam will be proficient as systems analyst/software de' Signer/ engineer. Duration: 3 years full time program. Eligibility for 'B' Level Exam, Graduate or 'A' Level accredited level course.
‘C’ Level/ Masters Level: The candidate who qualifies this exam can be a systems manager Duration: 18 months full time course Eligibility: B. Tech/ BE/ MCA] M.SC/ MBA (after B.Sc (Maths) ‘B’ Level 'C' Level Course.
Global Certification offered By Microsoft
Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP)
Microsoft Certified Professional internet (MCP Internet)
Microsoft Certified Professional Site Building (MCP Site Building)
Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT)
Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD)
Microsoft Certified'Systerns Engineer (MCSE)
Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA)
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer Internet (MCSE Internet)
For each certification of MS, the candidate has to pass a specified number of examinations. Similar international certifications are offered by Sun & Oracle. The advantage is that these certifications are recognized the world over but the disadvantage is that the certificate establishes proficiency only in one company's software.
Future Prospects: The emphasis on computerization has led to a great boom in the industry. Major growth areas are in financial services sector,  production planning and control/ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Design Development (CAD). Management Information Systems (MIS) etc. Prospects in the IT industry are excellent.
Animation and Cartoons
Animation Films Animators are illustrators who draw pictures to instruct the light and persuade people. Animation Films are created by filming sequence of drawings and processing them at high speed so that they appear to be moving. Animation Film is usually associated with children entertainment and with promotional activities.
Apart from artistic skill, the animator should possess a keen sense of humor, an eye for detail and fluid imagination and insight. Today with the help of computer aided designing and computer graphics, the laborious work of manually drawing pictures is dispensed with. Multimedia and Animation packages like Adobe Photoshop have been highly enabling to the animator. Animation graphics are used in action films too to stimulate real events that are perilous and life threatening to enact. In the print media the animator is a cartoonist. Cartoonists specialize in caricatures and satiric representations of actual events or people. Political Lampooning is the traditional forte of the cartoonist. Cartoonists work for newspapers and journals and as illustrators for books, greeting cards, television shows, corporate publications etc.
Training Program’s: The basic qualification for training in this Held is successful completion of 10+2/equivalent course. The graduate and post graduate program’s in such disciplines as Fine Arts, Applied Art, Commercial Art, Graphic Design, Animation Design Visual Communication De sign etc. give training in Animation art. Proficiency in Multimedia packages and other relevant software’s are also useful.
Cartoons are comic drawings often seen in a newspaper or magazine illustrating as a serious comment on politics. These caricatures depict humorously or satirically a topic of public interest. They are exaggerated and comic portraits of real people; examples are politicians, leaders, etc. When a cartoonist wants to criticize a political leader or show disapproval of him, he makes him look silly and ridiculous.
The father of modem cartoons was the English artist William Hogarth (1697-1764). He was interested in human attitudes, nature and character. His drawings ridiculed the drunkenness and stupidity of youngsters.
Around 1700, during the period called the 'Age of Reason' people became very puritanical, serious and boring. The only reason painting was still in demand was for supplying likenesses. This greatly irritated the young engraver Hogarth who had to make a living by illustrating books. So, he deliberately created a new type of painting which should appeal to his countrymen.
His paintings resembled a kind of 'dumb show' in which all characters play roles and make the meaning clear through gestures and use of stage puppetry. He did everything to bring out what he called the 'character' of each figure; not only through the face but also through the dress and behavior.

A cartoon is also a comic strip. A motion picture film (animation cartoon) is produced by photographing a series of drawings, each of which represents a minute advancement in the action of a film. The most famous animation cartoonist was Walt Disney. The cartoon highlights the prominent features of the person on which it is based. Line is used to indicate the abrupt meeting of the different colors and to explain the shape or form over which it moves.
Some of the famous cartoonists in India today are R.K. Lakshman, Abu Abraham and Mario Miranda.

The skill comes through an aptitude for drawing, a personal quality to identify unusual characteristics in people and situations and the wisdom and technique of presentation. No information is yet available on regular courses except.